Tanzania Mainland, formerly known as Tanganyika, marks its Independence Day annually on December 9.

On this day in 1961, Tanganyika, under the leadership of Mwalimu Julius K. Nyerere, gained independence from British colonialism. Nyerere became the country's first Prime Minister and retained the British monarch as Queen of Tanganyika. A year later, on December 9, 1962, a republican constitution was implemented, and Nyerere became Tanganyika's first President.

Tanzania's recorded history dates back to the 14th century. Its location on the East African coast made it easily accessible to Arab traders and slave traders who operated in the region. French interest in Tanzania peaked in the mid-18th century due to the economic possibilities of the region, while German missionaries from the German Church Missionary Society preceded French interaction.

By the late 19th century, East Africa was seen as an opportunity for German colonial expansion, and an area that included Tanzania became known as German East Africa. German methods of colonial administration were met with fierce local resistance, but control was briefly re-established until the outbreak of World War One. Following Germany's defeat, Britain administered the region, which it renamed the 'Tanganyika' region.

After the Second World War, the Tanganyika region was placed under United Nations (UN) trusteeship, and Britain was mandated with its development. Various independent movements emerged around this time, including the Tanganyika Africa National Union (TANU), headed by Julius Nyerere, the founder and first President of the country. Support for TANU grew, and by 1960, the first elections were planned for Tanganyika, and on December 9, 1961, Tanganyika became an independent republic. Since then, Tanzanians celebrate “Tanzania Day" on every December 9 to commemorate the country's independence.

It is also worth noting that on April 26, 1964, the then Republic of Tanganyika and the People's Republic of Zanzibar were united to form the United Republic of Tanzania (shortly, Tanzania).

For more information, please visit the Tanzania National Website, https://www.tanzania.go.tz/